Descripción: Autobiografia Benjamin Franklin Search. Home · Autobiografia Benjamin Franklin. Autobiografia Benjamin Franklin. October 9. Project Gutenberg · 58, free ebooks · 18 by Benjamin Franklin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin. Book Cover. Download. Hamilton, Madison i Jay dla Federalisty • Autobiografia Benjamina Franklina W przygotowaniu: • Abraham Lincoln: Historia, autorzy: John G. Nicolay i John Hay .
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Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theoristpolitician, freemasonpostmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, bejamina diplomat.
As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity.
As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rodbifocalsand the Franklin stoveamong other inventions. Franklin earned the title of “The First American” for his early and indefatigable auttobiografia for colonial unityinitially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies.
In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager”In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat. Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of Afterhe was associated with the Pennsylvania Chroniclea newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies.
He pioneered and was first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in and later became the Benjaina of Pennsylvania. He fran,lina and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations.
His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies inhaving been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, and this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolutionhe became the first United States Postmaster General. He was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs.
Franklna tohe served as governor of Pennsylvania. He initially owned and dealt in slaves but, by the s, he argued against slavery from an economic perspective and became one of the most prominent abolitionists. Benjamin Franklin’s father, Josiah Franklinwas a tallow chandlera soaper and candlemaker. Benjamin’s father and all four of his grandparents were born in England.
Josiah had seventeen children with his two wives. He fraanklina his first wife, Anne Child, in about in Ecton and immigrated with her to Boston in ; they had three children before immigrating, and four after. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin’s fifteenth child and tenth and last son. Abiah Folger was born in Nantucket, Massachusettson August 15,to Peter Folgera miller and schoolteacher, and his wife, Mary Morrell Folgera former indentured servant.
She came from a Puritan family that was among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedomwhen King Charles I of England began persecuting Puritans. They sailed for Boston in Her father was “the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America.
Ben Franklin followed in his grandfather’s footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony. Autobiogdafia Benjamin’s siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years.
The Autobiography and Other Writings by Benjamin Franklin
He attended Boston Latin School but did not graduate; he continued his education frannklina voracious reading. Although “his parents talked of the church as a career”  for Franklin, his schooling ended when he was ten. He worked for his father for a autoboografia, and at 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer, who taught Ben the printing trade.
When Ben was 15, James founded The New-England Courantwhich autobiografiia the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies. When denied the chance to write a letter to the paper for publication, Franklin adopted the pseudonym of ” Silence Dogood “, a middle-aged widow.
Dogood’s letters were published, and became a subject of conversation around town. Neither James nor the Courant’ s readers were aware of the ruse, and James was unhappy with Ben when he discovered the popular correspondent was his younger brother. Franklin was an advocate of free speech from an early age.
When his brother was jailed for three weeks in for publishing material unflattering to the governor, young Franklin took over the newspaper and had Mrs. Dogood quoting Cato’s Letters proclaim: At age 17, Franklin ran away to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, seeking a new start in a new city. When he first arrived, he worked in autobikgrafia printer shops around town, but he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was convinced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to London, ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary franilina establishing franklona newspaper in Philadelphia.
Finding Keith’s promises of backing a newspaper empty, Franklin worked as a typesetter in a printer’s shop in benjaminaa is now the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great in the Smithfield area of London.
Following this, he returned to Philadelphia in with the help of Thomas Denham, a merchant who employed Franklin as clerk, shopkeeper, and bookkeeper in his business. InBenjamin Franklin, then 21, created the Juntoa group of “like minded aspiring artisans and tradesmen who hoped to improve themselves while they improved their community.
Reading was a great pastime of the Junto, but books were rare and expensive.
The members created a library initially assembled from their own books after Franklin wrote:. A proposition was made by me that since our books were often referr’d to in our disquisitions upon the inquiries, it might be convenient for us to have them altogether where we met, that upon occasion they might be consulted; and by thus clubbing our books to a common library, we should, while we lik’d to keep them together, have each of us the advantage of using the books of all the other members, which would be nearly as beneficial as if each owned the whole.
This did not suffice, however. Franklin conceived the idea of a subscription librarywhich would pool the funds of the members to buy books for all to read. This was the birth of the Library Company of Philadelphia: InFranklin hired the first American librarian, Louis Timothee. The Library Company is now a great scholarly and research library. Upon Denham’s death, Franklin returned to his former trade.
InFranklin had set up a printing house in partnership with Hugh Meredith ; the following year he became the publisher of a newspaper called The Pennsylvania Gazette. The Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations.
Over time, his commentary, and his adroit cultivation of a positive image as an industrious and intellectual young man, earned him a great deal of social respect.
But even after Franklin had achieved fame as a scientist and statesman, he habitually signed his letters with the unpretentious ‘B. InBen Franklin published the first German-language newspaper in America — Die Philadelphische Zeitung — although it failed after only one year, because four other newly founded German papers quickly dominated the newspaper market.
Although Franklin apparently reconsidered shortly thereafter, and the phrases were omitted from all later printings of the pamphlet, his views may have played a role in his political defeat in Franklin saw the printing press as a device to instruct colonial Americans in moral virtue.
In Benjamin Franklin’s JournalismRalph Frasca argues nenjamina saw this as a service to God, because he understood moral virtue in terms of actions, thus, doing good provides a service to God. Despite his own moral lapses, Franklin saw himself as uniquely qualified to instruct Americans in morality. He tried to influence American moral life through construction of a printing network based on a chain of partnerships from the Carolinas to New England.
Franklin thereby invented the first newspaper chain. It was more than a business venture, for like many publishers since, he believed that the press had a public-service duty. Franklin quickly did away with all this when he took over the Instructor and made it The Pennsylvania Gazette. The Gazette soon became Franklin’s characteristic organ, which he freely used for satire, for the play of his wit, even for sheer excess of mischief or of fun.
From the first, he had a way of adapting his models to his own uses. The series of essays called nenjamina Busy-Body”, which he wrote for Bradford’s American Mercury infollowed the general Addisonian form, already modified to suit homelier conditions.
The thrifty Patience, in her busy little shop, complaining of the useless visitors who waste her valuable time, is related to the ladies who address Mr. And a number of the fictitious characters, Ridentius, Eugenius, Cato, and Cretico, represent traditional 18th-century classicism. Even this Franklin could use for contemporary satire, since Cretico, the “sowre Philosopher”, is evidently a portrait of Autboiografia rival, Samuel Keimer.
The Pennsylvania Gazettelike most other newspapers of the period, was often poorly printed. Franklin was busy with matters outside of his printing office, and autobiobrafia seriously attempted to raise the mechanical standards of his trade. Nor did he ever properly edit or collate the chance medley of stale items that passed for news autobiorafia the Gazette. His influence on the practical side of journalism was minimal.
Undoubtedly his paper contributed to the broader culture that distinguished Pennsylvania from her neighbors before the Revolution.
Like many publishers, Franklin built up a book shop in his printing office; he took the opportunity to read new books before selling them. Franklin had mixed success in his plan to establish an inter-colonial network of newspapers that would produce a profit for him and disseminate virtue.
After the second editor died, his widow Elizabeth Timothy took over and made it a success, — She was one of the colonial era’s first woman printers. Editor Peter Timothy avoided blandness and crude bias, and after increasingly took a patriotic stand in the growing crisis with Great Britain. In orFranklin was initiated into the local Masonic aktobiografia.
He became a Grand Master inindicating his rapid rise to prominence in Pennsylvania. He was the Secretary of St. John’s Lodge in Philadelphia from to Franlina age 17 inFranklin proposed to year-old Deborah Read while a boarder in the Read home. At that time, Read’s mother was wary of allowing her young daughter to marry Franklin, who was on his way to London at Governor Sir William Keith’s request, and also because of his financial instability.
Her own husband had recently died, and she declined Franklin’s request to marry her daughter. While Franklin was in London, his trip was extended, and there were problems with Sir William’s promises of support. Perhaps because of the circumstances of this delay, Deborah married a benjaminz named John Rodgers. This proved to be a regrettable decision. Rodgers shortly avoided his debts and prosecution by fleeing to Barbados with her dowryleaving her behind.
Rodgers’s fate was unknown, and because of bigamy laws, Deborah was not free to remarry. Franklin established a common-law marriage with Deborah Read on September 1, They took in Franklin’s recently acknowledged young illegitimate son William and raised him in their household.
They had two children together. Their son, Francis Folger Franklinwas born in October and died of smallpox in