Friedrich Nietzsche – Sobre verdad y mentira en sentido extramoral. Published on Oct 26, Ensayo en que el filósofo alemán habla sobre la invención del. Nietzsche, F. (), Contra la verdad. Ensayos tempranos: “Sobre verdad y mentira en sentido extramoral”; “Sobre el pathos de la verdad”; “La relación de la . Me es grato anunciar que este ensayo ha sido premiado en el concurso de . Sobre Verdad y Mentira en Sentido Extramoral y el ‘No-Miracles Argument’.
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Wilson, in the concluding chapter of his seminal book On Human Natureargues for the ethical implications of sociobiology. He argues certain primary values can be derived from our biological constitution generated through evolution. The third of his primary values are universal human rights.
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What is the biological explanation for universal human rights? Wilson believes it is due to our mammalian instincts: So far this would seem to explain how human rights might be defended in a european or western civilization.
Peter Singer gives a similar example in The Expanding Circle when considering the possibility of group altruism:. If the genes that make this behavior probable are rare mutations, in most cases the altruistic monkey would find its kindness unrewarded.
The monkey who reaches out for group altruism is hard done by. In a small, closely related group, kin altruism might bring it about. Then, as we have seen, those who reciprocate could be better off than those who do not.
They will groom and be groomed, remaining healthy while other members of the group succumb to parasites. However, how does this extend to universal human rights? Wilson provides a compelling solution to this problem:. Sobrf Human Rights will thus be accepted grudgingly by an ever expanding group as group altruism is accepted in the end. Wilson correctly points out that thanks to our culture we are able to shed those beliefs which are evolutionary products yet are no longer useful due to the change of environment Wilson,p.
Singer interprets this claim as meaning our natural preference toward those close to us is one such belief. That is it could be rejected through reasoning, substituting this belief for a more universal conception. It is merely a morally arbitrary change in behavior responding to evolutionary criteria. Singer points out Darwin had no intention sonre his theory being interpreted morally, the progress described in darwinian evolution is not moral progress, just the progress of survival abilities.
What, then, verfad the Biological Evidence for human rights be? What new argument has Wilson uncovered? Wilson seems to suggest accepting human rights is an evolutionary stable strategy which, if true, would be a fairly compelling pragmatical argument for them.
This argument, however, presupposes the perpetration of a common human gene pool is a desirable end in itself which is something some people would be willing to deny. The only prescriptive phrase which could be derived from this idea would be something along the lines of:.
If you desire the continued existence of a common and large human gene pool expanding in to the future, embrace human rights. It may be seen as countering cultural relativistic claims concerning the nature of human rights and morality in general. From Herodotus forward many thinkers have been inclined to argue that moral codes are no more than cultural impositions which vary from one society to another.
They, thus, believe rightly so I believe in the plurality of moral codes. The diverse moral codes found in the world makes the plurality of moral codes a fact, a descriptive fact. The cultural relativist, however, takes one step further and holds that, due to the fact cultural codes are relative, they cannot be judged from outside that culture as to do so would be a cultural imposition.
Human Rights are seen to be cultural impositions from the West and a new form of colonialism by some more radical cultural relativists. However, if Wilson is right, human rights may have originated in the West but can hardly be considered a cultural imposition. They have a biological reason for existing.
En este post se comenta el principio expuesto en la famosa obra Sobre la Libertad de John Stuart Mill. The link to the page is the following, http: Peter Aobre gives a similar example in The Expanding Circle when considering the possibility of group altruism: Wilson provides a compelling solution to this problem: The only prescriptive phrase which could be derived from this idea would be something along the lines of: John Stuart Mill Joe.
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